S4 Finnish Road Structures Research Programme, TPPT
The Road Structures Research Programme
(S4) was carried out in 1994-2001 by the Finnish Road Administration. The main
part of the program consisted of the Road Structures Research Project (TPPT
project) consisting development of pavement and the substructures. The objective
of the results obtained from the TPPT project is to be able to construct new
roads and repair old paved roads more durable while reducing the annual cost of
the road. The goal of the TPPT project was to develop the design methods of the
pavements to make them more durable and to make it possible to estimate their
performance during their entire life span. If the performance of the road
structures can be estimated in advance, the risk of unexpected damages
The results of the TPPT project were compiled
into a design system. The design guidelines and descriptions of the design
system present the procedures and methods with which a pavement for a particular
site can be designed to keep settlement, frost damage and load-bearing capacity
under control. The TPPT design system also includes a procedure for estimating
the life cycle costs of alternative pavements.
The focal point of research in the TPPT project
was on the pavement solutions and design of new high-volume roads. However,
during the course of the research programme the emphasis of road management
changed significantly from new road construction to maintenance of existing
roads. As a result, a separate project concentrating on thin pavement roads was
started alongside the TPPT project. At the same time the TPPT project was
reduced down slightly.
Several projects with parallel, but more limited
goals than the TPPT project were implemented alongside the TPPT project:
- Sustainable development structure idea
- Settlement calculation competition
- REFLEX steel mesh project
- Use of industrial by-products and development
of life cycle assessment
- Instrumented test road in Temmes
- Thin pavement road project
- Damages of road structure and the condition of
the road network
When the focal point of road management changed,
the relative significance of these projects increased toward the end of the Road
Structures Research Programme.
The programme produced a lot of publications. A
great majority of them have been written in Finnish language, but all published
reports have an English abstract and most of them can be opened on the 'Publications' web page of the programme (in
The list in English will be found e.g. from the
summarising report of the Road Structures Research Programme.
Finnra Reports 37/2002 (pdf 3600k). The content of
the programme and main results of some projects have been described very shortly
in different chapters of that report.
Publications in English
A couple of papers belonging to Road and Structures Research Programme TPPT
and to its supporting projects have been published in English. These are:
Symposium Proceeding. TPPT symposium 8-9 June 1998.
Ulla-Maija Mroueh et.al.
assessment of road construction (pdf, 270k). Finnra reports 17/2000.
Helsinki 2000. 60 p.
Matti Huhtala, Jari Pihlajamäki.
HVS-NORDIC. The activity of the first period in Finland
1997 - 1999 (pdf, 395k). Finnra reports 21/2000. Helsinki 2000. 59 p.
Heikki Kangas, Heikki Onninen and Seppo Saarelainen:
Testing a pavement on thawing, frost-susceptible subgrade with
the heavy vehicle simulator (pdf, 2600k). Finnra reports 31/2000. Helsinki 2000. 67 p.
Pihlajamäki, J. & Sikiö, J.
HVS-NORDIC. Research Report No 2. Tests 9-10,
high trafficked pavements on Ring Road II. Finnra Reports 29/2001
Huhtala, M., Pihlajamäki, J. & Sikiö, J.
HVS-NORDIC. Research Report No 3. Tests 1-2,
base course tests, 03-05 loading mode tests i Otaniemi. Finnra Reports
Koskinen, M., Vepsäläinen, P. & Lojander, M.
anisotropic behaviour of clays. Test embankment in Murro, Seinäjoki,
Finland. Finnra reports 16/2002 (pdf 5660)